G. G. Singh, A. M. Cisneros-montemayor, W. Swartz, W. Cheung, J. A. Guy et al., A rapid assessment of co-benefits and trade-offs among Sustainable Development Goals, Mar. Policy, vol.93, pp.223-231, 2018.

S. Díaz, J. Settele, E. Brondízio, H. Ngo, M. Guè-ze et al., Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Summary for Policymakers (Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)), 2019.

S. H. Butchart, M. Walpole, B. Collen, A. Van-strien, J. P. Scharlemann et al., Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines, Science, vol.328, pp.1164-1168, 2010.

K. L. Nash, C. Cvitanovic, E. A. Fulton, B. S. Halpern, R. A. Watson et al., Planetary boundaries for a blue planet, Nat. Ecol. Evol, vol.1, pp.1625-1634, 2017.

J. Lubchenco and K. Grorud-colvert, Making waves: the science and politics of ocean protection, Science, vol.350, pp.382-383, 2015.

, COP 10 Decision X/2. Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity), 2010.

B. C. O'leary, M. Winther-janson, J. M. Bainbridge, J. Aitken, J. P. Hawkins et al., Effective coverage targets for ocean protection, Conserv. Lett, vol.9, pp.398-404, 2016.

J. Claudet, C. W. Osenberg, L. Benedetti-cecchi, P. Domenici, J. A. García-charton et al., Marine reserves: size and age do matter, Ecol. Lett, vol.11, pp.481-489, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00286343

S. E. Lester, B. S. Halpern, K. Grorud-colvert, J. Lubchenco, B. I. Ruttenberg et al., Biological effects within no-take marine reserves: a global synthesis, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser, vol.384, pp.33-46, 2009.

J. Claudet, Six conditions under which MPAs might not appear effective (when they are), ICES J. Mar. Sci, vol.75, pp.1172-1174, 2018.

E. Sala, J. Lubchenco, K. Grorud-colvert, C. Novelli, C. Roberts et al., Assessing real progress towards effective ocean protection, Mar. Policy, vol.91, pp.11-13, 2018.

S. E. Lester and B. S. Halpern, Biological responses in marine notake reserves versus partially protected areas, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser, vol.367, pp.49-56, 2008.

M. Zupan, E. Fragkopoulou, J. Claudet, K. Erzini, B. Horta-e-costa et al., Marine partially protected areas: drivers of ecological effectiveness, Front. Ecol. Environ, vol.16, pp.381-387, 2018.

M. Zupan, F. Bulleri, J. Evans, S. Fraschetti, P. Guidetti et al., How good is your marine protected area at curbing threats?, Biol. Conserv, vol.221, pp.237-245, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01826691

A. D. Mazaris, A. Kallimanis, E. Gissi, C. Pipitone, R. Danovaro et al., Threats to marine biodiversity in European protected areas, Sci. Total Environ, vol.677, pp.418-426, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02165065

M. Dureuil, K. Boerder, K. A. Burnett, R. Froese, and B. Worm, Elevated trawling inside protected areas undermines conservation outcomes in a global fishing hot spot, Science, vol.362, pp.1403-1407, 2018.

B. Horta-e-costa, J. Claudet, G. Franco, K. Erzini, A. Caro et al., A regulation-based classification system for Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), Mar. Policy, vol.72, pp.192-198, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01358706

M. Coll, C. Piroddi, J. Steenbeek, K. Kaschner, F. B. Lasram et al., The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats, PLoS One, vol.5, p.11842, 2010.

N. Myers, R. A. Mittermeier, C. G. Mittermeier, G. A. Da-fonseca, K. et al., Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities, Nature, vol.403, pp.853-858, 2000.

F. Micheli, B. S. Halpern, S. Walbridge, S. Ciriaco, F. Ferretti et al., Cumulative human impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea marine ecosystems : assessing current pressures and opportunities, PLoS One, vol.8, p.79889, 2013.

J. Amengual and D. Alvarez-berastegui, A critical evaluation of the Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 and the Mediterranean MPA network, two years ahead of its deadline, Biol. Conserv, vol.225, pp.187-196, 2018.

/. Medpan and . Sparac-mapamed, Marine protected areas in the Mediterranean, 2018.

A. Abdulla, M. Gomei, D. Hyrenbach, G. Notarbartolo-di-sciara, A. et al., Challenges facing a network of representative marine protected areas in the Mediterranean: prioritizing the protection of underrepresented habitats, ICES J. Mar. Sci, vol.66, pp.22-28, 2009.

S. Marinesque, D. M. Kaplan, and L. D. Rodwell, Global implementation of marine protected areas: is the developing world being left behind? Mar, Policy, vol.36, pp.727-737, 2012.

M. D. Spalding, H. E. Fox, G. R. Allen, N. Davidson, Z. A. Ferdañ-a et al., Marine ecoregions of the world: a bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas, Bioscience, vol.57, p.573, 2007.

R. A. Magris and R. L. Pressey, Marine protected areas: just for show?, Science, vol.360, pp.723-724, 2018.

J. E. Cramp, C. A. Simpfendorfer, and R. L. Pressey, Beware silent waning of shark protection, Science, vol.360, p.723, 2018.

A. N. Rife, B. Erisman, A. Sanchez, and O. Aburto-oropeza, When good intentions are not enough.insights on networks of ''paper park'' marine protected areas, Conserv. Lett, vol.6, pp.200-212, 2013.

D. A. Gill, M. B. Mascia, G. N. Ahmadia, L. Glew, S. E. Lester et al., Capacity shortfalls hinder the performance of marine protected areas globally, Nature, vol.543, pp.665-669, 2017.

C. J. Lemieux, P. A. Gray, R. Devillers, P. A. Wright, P. Dearden et al., How the race to achieve Aichi Target 11 could jeopardize the effective conservation of biodiversity in Canada and beyond, Mar. Policy, vol.99, pp.312-323, 2019.

T. Agardy, J. Claudet, and J. C. Day, Dangerous Targets' revisited: old dangers in new contexts plague marine protected areas, Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst, vol.26, pp.7-23, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01380963

M. J. Costello and B. Ballantine, Biodiversity conservation should focus on no-take Marine Reserves: 94% of Marine Protected Areas allow fishing, Trends Ecol. Evol, vol.30, pp.507-509, 2015.

. R-core-team, R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing (R Foundation for Statistical Computing), 2017.