Évaluation et suivi de la biodiversité dans l’île de Moorea, Polynésie française : approche méthodologique appliquée aux écosystèmes terrestres et marins

Abstract : The island of Moorea in French Polynesia is representative of a relatively well preserved small tropical oceanic island but both its terrestrial and marine ecosystems are currently under strong anthropogenic pressures. The terrestrial ecosystems are facing an increasing urbanization, and the destruction and modification of their natural habitats by cultivation and forestry plantations, accidental or intentional fires, and particularly by the invasion of alien plant and animal species. Coastal areas and reef ecosystems are threatened by shoreline artificialization, sedimentation due to soil erosion, increasing uses of marine and lagoon resources and frequency of coral bleaching events. A significant erosion of terrestrial and marine biodiversity is observed on the island since the last decades. In the context of the Land Management Plan (PGA) and Marine Area Management Plan (PGEM) recently set up in the island by local authorities, scientific surveys and inventories were made in 2006 in order to assess the status of terrestrial biodiversity (vascular plants) and marine biodiversity (reef fishes) and compare areas with different anthropogenic pressures. Studies conducted on the flora and the vegetation at low and middle elevation along altitudinal transects show that the plant invasion process is related to climatic and topographic factors, and species autoecology. The marine study aims to compare the protected areas with control areas in order to test the effectiveness of protection measures and to propose a streamlined monitoring protocol. A methodological study in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems was conducted in order to propose biodiversity indicators which are crucial for decision making in conservation and sustainable development of island biodiversity. We used Geographic Information System (GIS) as a fast and intuitive tool for mapping indicators and their variability. This methodological approach developed on the island of Moorea could be used as a model for other tropical islands
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Hervé Chevillotte, Jean-Yves Meyer, Tiscar Mellado-Forichon, Jacques Florence, Esther Emmanuelli, et al.. Évaluation et suivi de la biodiversité dans l’île de Moorea, Polynésie française : approche méthodologique appliquée aux écosystèmes terrestres et marins. Revue d'Ecologie, Terre et Vie, Société nationale de protection de la nature, 2014. ⟨hal-01306285⟩

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