Terrestrial Carbonaceous Debris Tracing Atmospheric Hypervelocity-Shock Aeroplasma Processes

Abstract : Atmospheric hypervelocity impacts are widely viewed to produce the meteoric smoke layer by the shock-less interactions of the impinging air molecules with the vaporized meteoroid. In contrast here, we intend to show how gas and solid aerosols when captured in the Mach cone of a bolide while entering the Earth atmosphere are transformed into a new range of polymeric nanomaterials. Carbonaceous materials from natural situations are studied from collect in a pilot region of Southern France in the following days of a high altitude meteor atmospheric airburst on 2011 August 2 nd and since the 2013 February 15 th Chelyabinsk meteoritic event in Ural. These materials are compared to the ones obtained by hypervelocity shock with the CEA Persephone light-gas gun. A numerical simulation with the Tycho software is performed to model the evolution of the increase of density directly in the rear front of the shockwave with the increase of velocity around an obstacle for high velocity inflow. The multidisciplinary approach reveals the production carbon-based nanosolids from terrestrial precursors by hypervelocity plasma particle deposition (HPPD) processes. The Tycho simulation helps to establish the lack of mixing between the ablation smoke and the surrounding atmosphere. The correlation between the simulation, the hypervelocity experiments and the natural situations shows the distinctive characteristics of visco-elastic filamentary nanosolids formed in the laminar domain of low pressure, the ones of nanoparticle-rich stiff film specific to the thin domain of high shear stress and the ones of dense glassy carbon with nanocarbon crystallites (graphite and graphene-like) only formed in the frontal high temperature and pressure domain. Data on the natural carbon-based nanosolids indicate that the atmospheric shock-dissociation occurred from a carbon pool dominated by dead atmospheric carbon. Diagnostic keys are provided to distinguish natural carbon-based nanosolids synthesized by HPPD just at the time of the hypervelocity atmospheric entry from their subsequent transformations during atmospheric transport by other aeroplasma processes.
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Procedia Engineering, Elsevier, 2015, 103, pp.81-88. 〈10.1016/j.proeng.2015.04.012〉
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Marie-Agnès Courty, Jean-Michel Martinez. Terrestrial Carbonaceous Debris Tracing Atmospheric Hypervelocity-Shock Aeroplasma Processes. Procedia Engineering, Elsevier, 2015, 103, pp.81-88. 〈10.1016/j.proeng.2015.04.012〉. 〈hal-01175554〉

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